Collective farms

​Soviet agriculture maintained different methods of production. Kolkhozes (Russian коллективное хозяйство) were collective farms, i.e. inhabitants of a certain region (from a few dozen to few thousand) were jointly involved in agriculture, whereas the land and all machinery belonged to all as well. The work was done according to previously confirmed (often impractical) economic plans. The profit left over from the state’s share was distributed among the members. Many kolkhozes could not distribute anything at all and in the early 1950s collective farm earning in kind constituted on the average approximately 20 percent of the income of kolkhoz members.

Sovkhozes (Russian советское хозяйство) were state owned estates with hired agricultural workers receiving regular wages. During the decade after World War II their situation was usually better than in kolkhozes, later both were more or less the same.

Until they were dissolved in 1959, Machine-Tractor-Stations, Horse-Stations etc. represented another method of cheating the farmers. According to the official propaganda they were essential tools in modernising agriculture. They lent machinery, equipment or horses to farms and kolkhozes at an exaggerated price, generating additional profits for the state and covering the expenses for an enormous number of staff

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