Control-filtration camp

​Soviet prison camp during and after World War II for Soviet citizens who had served in the enemy armed forces and who had been in their territory

At the end of 1941 the German-Soviet war front halted at Moscow and in early 1942 even occasionally moved a few hundred kilometres back towards the west. Thus a class of people emerged who in the Soviet idiom had lived "temporarily in the territory occupied by the German fascist invaders " and who were seen as unreliable. Those among them who had collaborated with the Germans had to be quickly found. Hence the NKVD control-filtration camps. In cases where collaboration was established, the people were accused of high treason.

Thousands of civilians from various parts of the Soviet Union who were imprisoned by Germans required checking as well, including Ostarbeiter (eastern workers), war refugees and others who returned home after being set free from the camp. The Soviet power considered among its citizens also those living in the Baltic countries, occupied in 1939-1940, and people in Poland and Romania. Former Soviet war prisoners formed another group, who were regarded as deserters and sent to the control-filtration camps.

Estonia had filtration camp no 0316, which was established in January 1945 in Põllküla near Keila, and operated until spring 1946. The camp ‘processed’ over 21,000 people. Those freed were despatched to the military commissariat near their home, or to Baltvoenmorstroi (construction company of the Baltic naval bases). The Red Army counterespionage department Smersh arrested over 700 people.

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