Science

Table of Contents

  • Definition of the subject

    Writing about the history of science in Estonia is complicated by difficulties in defining the subject. One may ask: what is science (remembering the discussions ...
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  • The beginning of scientific activities on Estonian territory and Science in the Swedish period

    Determining the starting point of modern science is somewhat tentative. One way to minimise the risk of making a mistake is to place the birth ...
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  • The life of science in the 18th century

    Although the capitulation agreement of the local nobility included a clause which stipulated the continuation of the activities of the university, it was not observed ...
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  • Tartu University in the imperial period

    The university which was re-established in Tartu in 1802 developed into a centre of scientific life of the Baltic provinces of Russia that were under ...
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  • The sciences in Tartu in the 19th century

    Theology did not hinder the development of celestial science: through the ages, up to the present day, astronomy has occupied an eminent position in Tartu ...
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  • Medical sciences

    Chemical scientists were cooperating with physiologists, pharmacologists and pharmacists. Tartu became a place where courageous steps were taken in the development of the methodical aspect ...
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  • In the service of the empire

    Among outstanding doctors-clinicists in Tartu in the 19th century, Nikolai Pirogov (1810-1881) should be mentioned first. He was a disciple of the so-called Professors’ Institute ...
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  • Scientific collections and their founders

    Most of the scientific collections which were set up in the 19th century can still be enjoyed in their historical environment by visitors and used ...
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  • Scientific societies

    The first scientific society proper in Estonia was the Learned Estonian Society, which was founded at Tartu University in 1838. It saw the study and ...
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  • The merits and deficiencies of national science

    The development of Estonian identity falls in the period when the ‘biologised’ approach to social affairs was prevalent. The teachings of Darwin, as well as ...
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  • The birth of a national university

    On 1 December 1919, during the War of Independence, Tartu University was reopened as a national university. In 1919, yet, ‘technical difficulties’ had to be ...
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  • National sciences in the Republic of Estonia

    In the independent state, a national concept of history could be born. The disciples of Cederberg became representatives of the scientific discipline which continued to ...
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  • Natural and agricultural sciences in the Republic of Estonia

    It must be admitted that, after independence, fundamental sciences and natural sciences remained dormant in many respects due to a national narrow-mindedness, as well as ...
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  • Science outside of Tartu

    During the pre-war period in Estonia, Tartu began to lose its monopolist position as a scientific centre. Already in 1917, discussing the future of higher ...
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  • Power and Spirit

    Tartu has long had the reputation of being a spiritual centre with a singular aura. There is a certain truth to this, but it is ...
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  • The role of science in post-independence Estonia

    Scientists belong to the Estonian national elite. Scientists played an important role in the restoration of independence, although some have expressed nihilistic ideas, e.g ...
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