1558–1710. Estonia under Swedish rule

Table of Contents

  • Relations between Old Livonia and its neighbouring countries

    The late 16th century and the 17th century saw the breaking up of the medieval estate system, the formation of absolutist nation states and the ...
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  • Swedish, Danish, Russian and Polish-Lithuanian wars for Estonia

    Livonia maintained stable relations with Russia until the mid-16th century; from then onwards, Muscovite tsars began to increase diplomatic pressure. Referring to the 11th-century military ...
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  • Estonia divided between Sweden, Poland and Denmark

    After a break in the war, the boundary between Poland and Sweden in mainland Estonia was drawn along the demarcation line of 1582–1583. The ...
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  • Population

    In the wars which ravaged the Estonian countryside for two generations (1558–1629), the indigenous population and the continuity of settlement suffered most. About 250 ...
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  • Cities

    There were ten cities on Estonian territory in the late 16th century: in addition to the medieval cities, town rights were given to Kuressaare in ...
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  • Trade and industry

    The autonomy and prosperity of towns was founded on commerce, and was successful only under conditions of continuing peace and stable relations. The 17th century ...
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  • Agrarian conditions

    Under the Swedish reign, Estonian society functioned more or less in the same way as had been the case in the Middle Ages. The rural ...
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  • Church and religion. Spiritual world

    When the Russian–Livonian War broke out (1558), Old Livonian towns were mostly Lutheran and the German landed gentry also expressed support for the new ...
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  • Peasant education

    One important part of Swedish religious policy was the promotion of literacy among peasants and the publication of Estonian religious literature, intended to strengthen the ...
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  • Elitist education and high culture

    Elitist education and high culture fared better than education of peasants. Gymnasia (upper secondary schools) were opened in Tallinn and Tartu. In 1632, a few ...
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  • Estonia during the reign of the absolutist King Charles XI. The Great Reduction of manors

    The reign of King Charles XI (1672–1697) brought drastic changes into Sweden’s policy in its overseas provinces. As a result of the continuous ...
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  • The Great Northern War. End of Swedish rule in Estonia

    The reforms carried out in Estonia under Charles XI did not have a long-lasting effect; in reality Swedish church law was put into practice. In ...
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