ca 1200–1558. Estonian middle ages

Table of Contents

  • Sources

    The first decades of the 13th century are quite well known because of the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Heinrici Chronicon Livoniae); and also the ...
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  • Foreign conquest and formation of a new administrative division

    Christian religion nevertheless failed to assert itself in Estonia without military force. Several different and often competing religious and lay powers participated in a determined ...
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  • Spread of Christianity and religious orders

    Estonians were baptised by the German and Danish priests mostly during the second and third decades of the 13th century. The sacrament of baptism was ...
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  • Consolidation of the new regime. Origin and mutual relations of the new settlers

    In rural areas, the new regime took a long time to become established. Initially, it was probably limited to collecting taxes. The first tax was ...
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  • Emergence of Old-Livonian towns and the developing trade

    A separate problem is the formation of the towns in Old Livonia, and their impact on the country’s socio-economic and political situation. Although in ...
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  • Internal events in 14th century Old Livonia. St George’s Night Uprising

    The 14th century in Estonian history is a period of tension between local landlords. It chiefly denotes the struggle between the Livonian branch of the ...
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  • Development of towns in the 14th–15th centuries. Church life in towns

    Despite the above-mentioned problems and setbacks which affected entire Livonia, the towns probably developed rather stably. Starting from the first half of the 14th century ...
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  • Internal affairs in 15th century Old Livonia: nobility, clergy and peasantry

    The 14th century witnessed sharp disagreements between the ruling powers in Livonia that often led to armed conflicts, especially between the Order and the town ...
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  • Religious life in the late Middle Ages. The Reformation

    The key themes in Livonian history in the first half of the 16th century are the Reformation, relations with Russia in foreign policy and the ...
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  • The Late Middle Age Livonia in the foreign policy arena: Relations with Russians

    In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, relations with Russia became strained. Under pressure from Moscow, the conglomerate of principalities slowly turned into a ...
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