Türi drumlins

To the south of the Pandivere Upland, the relief of Central Estonia displays numerous drumlin-like elevations and ridges known as small drumlins. In Kõrvemaa these can be found as islands of mineral land within large bog massifs, the so-called “bog islands”. On the till plains of Central Estonia they are aggregated particularly densely in an area of ca 140 km² near Paide and Türi, called the Türi Small Drumlin Field. More than 50 small drumlins of various shapes and sizes, oriented from east-northeast to west-southwest, can be found here. Their highest altitude reaches 80 metres at the top of Käomägi.

In addition to their smaller dimensions, the small drumlins here differ from the larger ones also in that they are composed partly of the bedrock. The share of the bedrock in their composition is often so high that there is reason to regard them as rocky drumlins (Röa drumlin). The Türi Drumlin Field has been formed in a territory where crystalline basement rocks are crevassed by deep faults, making the surface uneven. The faults extend also into the upper layer of sedimentary rocks in the form of west-southwest oriented belts. The glacier that moved towards the Livonian Bay exarated the surface of the bedrock and accumulated till on top of it, forming a landscape with small drumlins here. The most typical landforms of the drumlin field are located in the centre of the area, where the most distinct formations are Pala, Käomäe, Poaka and Kirna drumlins.

Like in Vooremaa, the drumlins of Türi have also developed into densely populated cultural landscapes in the course of time. Natural vegetation is still preserved here only as paludified meadows or alder brush in the depressions between drumlins. On the slopes and tops of drumlins one can find only single small coppices of spruce forest. Unlike Vooremaa, there are no lakes here. The most important water body is the Pärnu River, the valley of which divides the drumlin field into two more or less equal parts.

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