More than 3700 species of fungi have been recorded in Estonia, while the actual number of fungus species is considered to have reached 4500. The majority of the fungus species are wood decomposers or parasites on more than 1200 plant species. Due to the fact that most of our virgin forests have been destroyed, many wood decomposing fungi species have become rare, although in comparison with the Nordic countries, where overly intensive forestry has brought many species to extinction, wood fungus species are considerably better represented in Estonia.

About 60 of the Estonian mushroom species are recommended as edible species. Compared to the nations of West and Central Europe, Estonians consume many more mushroom species for food but compared to Russians — fewer. Also, the number of mushroom species traditionally consumed for food is considerably lower in West Estonia as compared to East Estonia.

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