Land forms

The Harju plateau, the Pandivere Upland and the Viru plateau have much in common, and their landscape features are similar. The surface topography of all the limestone plateaus depends strongly on the bedrock topography. The thin Quaternary cover seldom hides the features of bedrock topography. The exceptions are some ancient valleys (e.g. Harku and Vasavere), filled with Quaternary sediments, and rare marginal formations of the continental ice. Moraine plains prevailing in all the plateaus are cut by shallow valleys. Occasionally, rare eroded bedrock 'islands' emerge from the flat relief (e.g. near Keila). The moraine plains in the Pandivere Upland have not been eroded by post-glacial water bodies

The Vaivara hills in Northeast Estonia represent an end moraine, consisting of three ridges — Tornimägi Hill (70 m), Põrguhauamägi Hill (83 m) and Pargimägi Hill (84.5 m) — oriented in east-west direction, with a total length of 5 km. Strategically located in a narrow stripe between the Alutaguse bogs and the Gulf of Finland, the Vaivara hills have been battlegrounds in many wars, including the Second World War. The Uljaste esker is another remarkable Quaternary land form on the Viru plateau. It functions as a natural dam for the Uljaste lake, with a water level several metres above the height of the plateau on the other side of the esker.

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